Quarks are fundamental building blocks of all matter. Up and down quarks are what Protons and Neutrons are made of. The Charm, Strange, Top and Bottom particles are heavier and only live a fraction of a second.

Introducing the Quarks


Together with quarks, the leptons make up all matter. The most known lepton is the negative charged electron. The neutrinos are very light particles, that interacts very little with other particles, which makes them hard to measure, although they exist in huge amounts.

Introducing the Leptons

The Force Carriers

The four fundamental forces are carried by the gauge bosons: The force carriers. The strong fundamental force is carried by a gluon, the weak fundamental force by W and Z particles, while electromagnetism (which includes light) is carried by photons. The Graviton is yet to be observed, but is hypothesised to carry the gravitational force.

Introducing the Nuclear Force Carriers